Therefore, the result of a situation makes that decision OK. For example, it’s ethical for you to tell a white lie if it achieves what you need or want it to. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. The first one, consequential ethics, states that outcomes determine ethical decisions. Organization integrity is a way to perform organization activities that protect all aspects related to persons, businesses, and communities. Its subject consists of fundamental issues of practical decision making, and its major concerns include the nature of ultimate value and the standards by which human actions can be morally evaluated. It is common in discussions of business ethics to appeal to one or more ethical… Applying all five approaches to the same problem (practicing ethical pluralism) is a good way to generate new 3 01-Johnson(Ethics)-45065.qxd 10/25/2006 3:51 PM Page 3. insights about the issue. Utilitarianism 2. We can apply these theories to ethical dilemmas such as ‘is it ok to steal?’ For utilitarian theories, what matters is the consequenceof an action. %%EOF Follow Published on Jan 22, 2012. The Ethical Theories: Brief Summary. ↕ DO NOT FALSIFY OR FABRICATE DATA. Information ethics, as described by Floridi and Sanders (2003), offers a conceptual basis for such an exploration. f`���@(� But ethical issues are not always clear cut; there are many grey areas that need to be threaded with care by organizations. endstream endobj 119 0 obj <> endobj 120 0 obj <> endobj 121 0 obj <>stream Sometimes two people that a particular Thus, ensuring that young leaders have proximate ethical role models at work should facilitate the development of ethical leadership (Brown & Trevino, 2006b; Weaver et al., 2005). Those theories related to character are described as virtue-based approaches. ù…—¼„ñ-‚Ú¤ãå[€ @bĞ{ Learning from role models may also occur through training SLIDE 3 – FORMS OF ETHICAL THEORIES For individuals, the ethical theory they employ for decision making guidance emphasizes aspects of an ethical dilemma important to them and leads them to the most ethically correct resolution according to the guidelines within the ethical theory itself. (Second order general moral rule or principle.) ETHICAL THEORY (High level principle from which derive lower level principles) ↕ DO NOT LIE. h�bbd```b``� "C@$C;�d��L���,��L ��f����28�1�XW(�4$,��"+�A"�O�?jw�����md`������� � ��F Ethical Theories Most people know what we mean by morally good and bad but very few people can explain what it is that makes some action good or bad. 151 0 obj <>stream These theories focus on the actions that lead to consequences and whether the actions are good or bad. ���A���W��y�����dn,������n�iS��*���/�nw�6�+$m ��u���$��+��h>/h�nݝ�ҵ��ڸ��%� ethical theories and principles pdf Six different ethical theories and moral principles in the ethical reasoning individuals.ethical theory is largely done by philosophers special ising in ethics. ↕ RECORD ONLY DATA YOU OBSERVE. The term deontology is derived from the Greek deon, “duty,” and logos, “science.”. 2.1 Western ethical theories 21 2.2 Deontological ethics 23 2.3 Teleological ethics 26 2.4 Limitations of traditional normative theories 29 Section 2 Self Assessment Questions 30 3.0 Key ethical issues: whose arguments count? I find it interesting that the ethical theories apply to each and everyone with some variants here and there. Sometimes people might agree that a particular act is bad but give very different reasons why it is bad. The good that results, of course, is the closing down of sex establishments and the incapacitation (at least temporarily) of prostitutes and Ethical Theories are attempts to provide a clear, unified account of what our ethical obligations are. OBJECTIVES Introduction to Ethics Karen L. Rich A seed will only become a flower if it gets sun and water. ��L{pa�k�Q`���퀂s+CbW#w��{�i�����vT 5H pw0���{�;�t7����p�)]�g�ž�s��&β�s���ݬ�-YR�����E�p�� ��4|� �&W�|�QRs1P�*�I�/�I�����}L�S�,�B%ʚ�J|��d�����{GG�`GG�����b2p���l�:c�Zf�& (�A��C����Ł|F������rb��� ���Xda� �tD�d�c�8fG7�?�� ��������Vy��h�b�1���Ő� �?o�D ��=@����z �g0 h�� Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. M|��z��^����Z����Zփ�0�-�gvA�_"N���=�v�����w1l\;�0�J�02�E�sU�߻j�m$ZiHg�izV���h��岻+fJ2���#��Hi�geSՇ��j�@.ݟ�k��4����y�J.���Շ����7�*����cYW�E���h6��3�.Lm���ڏ]O�LJ%�4�����"pR�"����o]_���t3���)�v�j���b�ݺS�}��k��#�O��w�����ӣ]��䠃�Ez�ᄲ�#� �h������M! The theory states that before decisions are made, the context of the decision must be examined. 2 The Reluctant Donor Case: Suppose that you are famous transplant surgeon, and that your transplants always work. (a) Consequentialism (and utilitarianism) Whether an act is morally right depends solely on consequences or the goodness of … Ethics is the study of morality – i.e. Deontological ethics, in philosophy, ethical theories that place special emphasis on the relationship between duty and the morality of human actions. Ethical theories 1. Applied normative ethics is a study of how ethical principles should guide.Ethical Theories. Aristotle’s virtue theory Each theory provides a framework intended to guide moral behaviour. Ethics or morality (and we’ll use these terms interchangeably) is the broader arena in which any special set of ethical problems is found. 94 types of ethical theory for them in much the same way they can be good or bad for us. endstream endobj startxref ›CÄfì"YHI$]TÚ 0¤HÅX†øûz. By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. The development of cybernetics and digital computers prompted the need for a greater exploration of computer ethics. the behavior was ethical or unethical. 118 0 obj <> endobj Introduction to Ethical Studies An Open Source Reader Lee Archie John G. Archie Ethical leadership relies to a large extent on social learning processes. —LOUIS GOTTSCHALK chapter1 22183_CH01_Pass3.qxd 11/11/11 11:19 AM Page 3 Ethics, the philosophical discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. 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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory, but its development within economics has largely been driven by the development of an associated psychological theory, which has come to be called ‘utility theory.’Utility theory is the economist's core account of people's behavior. %PDF-1.6 %���� 1 Utility Theory. �"�@� `�^�Ϣ�6Q�9��sIj+d/+tе� P+�Y ��X) 138 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0C03E49294100DFDECCEB0CD468C8213><9FEEE17124A2D74D98F12778223FC2C2>]/Index[118 34]/Info 117 0 R/Length 98/Prev 755430/Root 119 0 R/Size 152/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream If your stealing a loaf of bread, say, prevents your family from dying of starvation, then the annoyance of the shopkeeper i… endstream endobj 56 0 obj <> endobj 57 0 obj <> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <> endobj 60 0 obj <> endobj 61 0 obj <> endobj 62 0 obj <> endobj 63 0 obj <> endobj 64 0 obj <> endobj 65 0 obj <> endobj 66 0 obj <> endobj 67 0 obj <>stream 6U ilitart ians belie , ev speaking a bit roughly, that the right action is the action that maximizes good results. Those theories related to duty or rules are called deontological theories (deos being a Greek word for duty). right and wrong, good and bad. 0 Ethical theories attempt to systematically answer these questions. D����k)�bX%��Rݭ�>����0|�X�Q�12�'�L���*�>/T�p�L,�c����d"o_,_��'�g�-�Z�x(������M����oo��~A�����omF�!�'긫��K"��y13���&��G���� o�We�o�K�}���7��(3?E�b��쟧���e�6�…Z\Ll�(��t�@-3��W��c�A.�/(��>D�^෌��w^�q�N#:�G5�mB߽�W�����P�:R,K�V���&sh}#C �@ >r�|. Is the ethical argument or predicted consequences of actions framed in terms of the “carrot” or the “stick”?We can argue that putting emphasis on the donʼts (or evil) tends to be counter-productive, producing feelings of guilt and personal oppression, if Instead, in the first instance, it attempts to organize and explain common ethical opinions. I'm glad you stopped by. This chapter One cannot study special issues in ethics without some knowledge of the basic ways in which ethical theorists have The doctrine states that there are no absolute truths in ethics and that what is Use a variety of theories when possible. With the collapse of many organizations, many researchers are increasingly paying attention to such phenomenon. THEORIES IN ETHICS Presented By: Somya (13105 Khushbu(13105 1 2. Thank you for reading and commenting. h޼UYo�6�+|�l)���`�=bGI��� �2:��z�}gH�O$��i�s_��DB"�dD��@�Z�'� B�^�9PE$G��N�Ƅ1��LB�BS!����o骫�>ۗ���1�0"���>��>ux��������x����3� The syllabus looks at 3 ethical theories: 1. Ethical Theories Ethical Relativism- This theory holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture. Evaluate a variety of ethical theories and approaches to use in personal and professional relationships. Annotated List of Ethical Theories The following list is selective, including only what I view as the major theories. The development of cybernetics and digital computers prompted the need for a greater exploration of computer ethics. Ethical theories such as relativism, utilitarianism, egoism, deontology, the divine command theory, and the virtue ethics, are all products of Western understanding of what ethics are and how they are applicable to help one’s decision-making process. (Instantiation in science of second order principle.) Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. Summarizing Ethical Theories Ending with the scenario that opened this chapter, utilitarianism provides one approach to assessing the ethics of police paying informants to solicit prostitutes, so they may be arrested. Descriptions of ethical theories and principles 45,593 views. Ethical theories Two types of ethical theories (i) Teleological theories Value based theories = An act is morally right if it promotes the good or what has value. An ethical theory isn’t necessarily a guide to moral decision-making in hard cases. You can discover the value of ethical pluralism by Entries in bold face have been especially influential. Lets see an example…. Topic – organization ethical theories pdf Understanding Business Ethics. Consequentialism names a type of ethical theory that judges human practices, like actions or rules, based on their consequences. (Application to a particular case.) These four theories fall into one of two categories. Recommendations for additions to the list are welcome. Text for the annotations is taken largely from the relevant Wikipedia articles or … Fritzche and Becke, (1984) link ethical behavior with normative theories of ethics, most of the empirical studies is based on the Rest model of ethical decision. Published in: Education, Economy & Finance, Business. RevLady from Lantana, Florida on August 29, 2011: A great synopsis of the ever elusive definition "ethics." A theory is a systematic body of thought, starting with very general principles or standards: rules or personal ideals that J. Broome, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Human practices that produce good consequences are morally right, while ones that … Ethical Theory: an Overview Introduction: 1. 31 Section Overview 31 Section Learning Outcomes 31 3.1 Meta-ethics 31 3.2 Ethical monism, relativism and pluralism 32 h�b```f`` It was interesting and presented in a way that is comprehensible. theories. Kant’s deontological ethics 3. They are attempts, in other words, to tell a single "story" about what we are obligated to do, without referring directly to specific examples. 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