When all is done, the network connection should work. Continue with the chapter on Configuring the network. Once the Gentoo image has been booted, you should be given the prompt: For extra help: https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Handbook:AMD64/Installation/Media#Gentoo_Linux_installation_CD. Distribution Kernels are ebuilds that cover the complete process of unpacking, configuring, compiling, and installing the kernel. The third field shows the filesystem used by the partition. If not, please create a bug report for it so we can take care of it. But don't worry, we got you covered every step of the way. This will install the source code for the Gentoo kernel on your system. Readers who have no network or bandwidth restrictions can happily skip down to the next section. However, some knowledge of network terminology and basic concepts might be necessary. Partition labels and UUIDs are identified by the PARTLABEL and PARTUUID prefixes respectively and can be viewed nicely in the terminal by running the blkid command: While not always true for partition labels, using a UUID to identify a partition in fstab provides a guarantee that the bootloader will not be confused when looking for a certain volume, even if the filesystem would be changed in the future. Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain items. It contains instructions equivalent to the instructions in the following sections of this Handbook. Now we need to install a boot loader, which will allow us to boot back into our Gentoo installation at a later time. Your donation powers our service to the FOSS community. On ext2, ext3 and ext4, this can be done using one of the following commands, respectively: This will generally quadruple the number of inodes for a given file system as its "bytes-per-inode" reduces from one every 16kB to one every 4kB. Later on during the installation a timezone will be defined. I have yet to try the Linux Live scripts because I don't really know how supported they are in Gentoo. Then execute the following command, substituting ${IP_ADDR} with the right IP address, ${BROADCAST} with the right broadcast address and ${NETMASK} with the right netmask: Set up routing using route. Such a service is called a name service. Let's take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux and Linux in general, including block devices, partitions, and Linux filesystems. The Minimal Installation CD is called install-x86-minimal-.iso. This disk space estimate excludes the binpkgs/ and distfiles/ directories that are stored under /var/cache/ by default. You might be asking what now? Several kinds of device identifiers are available for block special device nodes, including paths to device files, filesystem labels and UUIDs, and partition labels and UUIDs. Stage3 tarballs are suitable to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this handbook. The user is in a working environment ready to install Gentoo. When prompted for the last sector, type +128M to create a partition 128 Mbyte in size: Now, when pressing p, the following partition printout is displayed: Type a to toggle the bootable flag on a partition and select 2. Once wireless is working, continue configuring the IP level networking options as described in the next section (Understanding network terminology) or use the net-setup tool as described previously. To install gentoo, you have to boot a minimal or "rescue" linux usually from cd/dvd. It will also be used when the computer hibernates, or crashes. This walkthrough was made using "install-powerpc-minimal-20091018.iso" Burn the iso to a CD-R with a program like Iso Recorder, Nero, or K3B. The cdrecord utility from the package app-cdr/cdrtools can burn ISO images on Linux. Sometimes an optional step can be followed. The other three seem silly to me. In certain cases it is necessary to build an initramfs - an initial ram-based file system. Simply select the appropriate tab, right click the link to the stage file, then Copy link address (Firefox) or Copy link location (Chromium) to copy the link to the clipboard, then paste the link to the wget utility on the command-line to download the stage tarball: More traditional readers or 'old timer' Gentoo users, working exclusively from command-line may prefer using links, a non-graphical, menu-driven browser. If systemd is desired, please consult the systemd article. We will not explain all possible optimization options. Readers that already know which filesystem to use can continue with Applying a filesystem to a partition. Partition labels and partition UUIDs can be used to identify the block device's individual partition(s), regardless of what filesystem has been chosen for the partition itself. Although the text then continues with a default choice (identified by "Default: " in the title), the other possibilities will be documented as well (marked by "Alternative: " in the title). By the way, a tarball is just a file ending in Live environments and stage archives can be downloaded using the links below. If your network is specially configured and has special needs to establish an internet connection (such as the use of proxies or PPPoE, or to connect over wireless, refer to the Gentoo Handbook at https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Handbook:AMD64/Installation/Networking for instructions). Those not interested in verifying and validating the stage file can close the command-line browser by pressing q and can move directly to the Unpacking the stage tarball section. Repeat this until all partitions are deleted. Edit the file to reflect: /dev/sda2 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2, /dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1. Now we will make the swap partition. If this all works, then the remainder of this chapter can be skipped to jump right to the next step of the installation instructions (Preparing the disks). The example partition layout was mentioned earlier: fdisk is a popular and powerful tool to split a disk into partitions. The default option is called gentoo. To find out type the following command at your terminal and press enter: This command should produce a list of the network devices on your machine. Some programs can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support (X-server). I'm so happy with how well it's working now. Check the date by executing in the terminal: To change the date, execute, replacing each of the letters in the date code with their correct values (March 29th, 16:21 in the year 2014 would be 032916212014): Once the date is correct, run the following commands to download a copy of the latest stage3 tarball: links https://www.gentoo.org/downloads/mirrors/. When prompted for the last sector, type +2M to create a partition 2 Mbyte in size: Now create a small boot partition. Visit the LVM article for more details. To have a network interface receive this information automatically, use dhcpcd: Some network administrators require that the hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server is used by the system. amd64 aka x86_64 Boot media. We use tar to proceed: Make sure that the same options (xpf and --xattrs-include='*. This key is usually ESC, DEL, or F1 but will vary, depending on your motherboard. An initramfs will pull in the necessary files into an archive which is used right after the kernel boots, but before the control is handed over to the init tool. and using the example layout can jump to Alternative: Using fdisk to partition the disk. This chapter explains how to install Gentoo using the minimal Installation CD. This is a tutorial on how to install Gentoo Linux from scratch on an encrypted partition of a virtual machine using VMWare. First of all, welcome to Gentoo! The first thing we will do is select a mirror from the list on the page. The values need to match, otherwise the downloaded file might be corrupt (or the digests file is). If the system has several network interfaces, then the appropriate net. Now is the time to disconnect all hard drives from your machine and only connect the hard drive you wish to install Gentoo on. The developer community is happy to hear feedback on how to make Gentoo an even better distribution. The reason for this is because every program is different. Configure the set up to the best of your knowledge. We recommend the use of net-misc/dhcpcd although many other DHCP clients are available through the Gentoo repository: More information on dhcpcd can be found in the dhcpcd article. Without this change, the system will most likely reboot to the internal disk device, ignoring the external boot media. Btrfs filesystems generated in this way can act in the following modes: raid0, raid1, raid10, raid5, and raid6. Readers can find information on emerging and then installing this bootloader in the Syslinux article. It is very important to know the technical specifications and be familiar with your computer's hardware before installing Gentoo Linux, because this knowledge will guide some decisions you will make during the installation. The next section displays a short overview of the available kernels and their descriptions: Alongside the kernel, boot options help in tuning the boot process further. The computer may beep, and you may see another menu asking what Operating System to boot. Once inside the motherboard's firmware menu, change the boot order so that the external bootable media (CD/DVD disks or USB drives) are tried before the internal disk devices. When the Installation medium boots, it tries to detect all the hardware devices and loads the appropriate kernel modules to support the hardware. Most users should not use the 'advanced' tarballs options; they are for specific software or hardware configurations. The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout using fdisk. With an initramfs, these partitions can be mounted using the tools available inside the initramfs. every host that one wants to be able to reach must have a unique IP address). Gentoo is a robust, flexible, and excellently maintained distribution. To see the current wireless settings on the card, one can use iw. The inside of the file should be in .ini format and look like this: The default sync-uri variable value listed above will determine a mirror location based on a rotation. Exit the chrooted environment and unmount all mounted partitions. The make.conf.example file itself also contains lots of examples and information; don't forget to read it too. I tried to convice the bios to boot from a usb cd-rom drive, but I hadn't any success. Update the /mnt/gentoo/etc/portage/make.conf file to match personal preference and save (nano users would hit Ctrl+x). The initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware autodetection (just like on the installation CD) before the "real" system starts up. Gentoo's packaging system uses source code (although support for pre-compiled packages is included too) and configuring Gentoo happens through regular text files. Pretty linear bash script that is intended to be executed in guest OS. This seems to be quite easy, but lots of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate name for their Linux PC. The location in which it stores the partition information is much bigger than the 512 bytes of the MBR partition table (DOS disklabel), which means there is practically no limit on the amount of partitions for a GPT disk. If you are receiving data back, press CTRL+C (holding the CTRL key and tapping C), to cancel the ping. In a network, hosts are identified by their IP address (Internet Protocol address). On x86 systems, these are called partitions. Follow the handbook, it will tell you what to do why you are doing it and explain your options when choices are to be made. Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still has some sections left! Both fdisk and parted are partitioning utilities. Anleitung: bootfähigen Gentoo USB-Stick erstellen. In order to install Gentoo on your machine from the Minimal Installation image, you must have a network connection. It is advised users search the forums and the wiki before asking for assistance in Gentoo support channels. MBR uses 32-bit identifiers for the start sector and length of the partitions, and supports three partition types: primary, extended, and logical. Gentoo does release their own .iso indeed, but remember that's simply a toolkit - not an installer. There is also a 15-partition limit for SCSI and SATA unless the disk uses GPT labels. The root Linux account is an all-powerful account, so pick a strong password. There are many paths to explore... Gentoo provides its users with lots of possibilities and therefore has lots of documented (and less documented) features to explore here on the wiki and on other Gentoo related sub-domains (see the Gentoo online section below). The filesystems that need to be made available are: The /proc/ location will be mounted on /mnt/gentoo/proc/ whereas the other two are bind-mounted. This partition can then contain additional logical partitions (partitions within a partition). Be patient. For instance, ssl will compile SSL support in the programs that support it. Gentoo can be installed in many different ways. Once it is finished downloading, you must unpack the tarball archive, which contains enough of the basic Gentoo system to allow us to install the rest. The GRUB installer can perform this operation automatically with the --removable option. Due to this small space, only four primary partitions are supported (for instance, /dev/sda1 to /dev/sda4). Install Gentoo Linux. genkernel works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way the installation CD kernel is configured. In 2002, I installed Gentoo after 2 previous failed attempts. Gentoo provides an official installation CD image (.iso). The Gentoo LiveDVD named livedvd-amd64-multilib-20121221.iso, and the Gentoo minimal LiveCD named install-amd64-minimal-20131010.iso. A first setting is the -march= or -mtune= flag, which specifies the name of the target architecture. The second field shows the mount point at which the partition should be mounted. To burn the ISO file on the CD in the /dev/sr0 device (this is the first CD device on the system - substitute with the right device file if necessary): user $ cdrecord dev=/dev/sr0 install-x86-minimal-20141204.iso. To allow other users to access the system during the installation (perhaps to support during an installation, or even do it remotely), a user account needs to be created (as was documented earlier on) and the SSH daemon needs to be started. Although installing for a 32-bit CPU, almost all x86 motherboards (starting from around 2006-2007 until the present) that were produced with support for UEFI have 64-bit UEFI firmware. If after booting the system we find out that the assumption about the network interface name (which is currently documented as eth0) was wrong, then execute the following steps to rectify this: Next inform Linux about the network environment. When prompted for the last sector, hit Enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on the disk. When you are finished with any configurations, enter the commands: Your system should power off, then boot back up into Gentoo. The Master boot record boot sector was first introduced in 1983 with PC DOS 2.x. Those interested in performing a Gentoo installation using a stage less than three should read the Gentoo FAQ on How do I install Gentoo using a stage1 or stage2 tarball? Just like with the ISO file, it is also possible to verify the cryptographic signature of the .DIGESTS.asc file using gpg to make sure the checksums have not been tampered with: Now unpack the downloaded stage onto the system. Type "p" and then ENTER, to print out the list of partitions on the drive. Those interested should proceed to the next section. This is recommended for removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems. One benefit is that your programs will be tailored to your machine and needs. If not configured properly, the system might have lots of free space on one partition and none on another. The first tool to decide on has to provide logging facilities for the system. I'm installing from Minimal and trying to set my CPU_FLAGS_X86 and want to do it right the first time. Use the mkpart command for this, and inform parted to start from 1 MB and end at 3 MB (creating a partition of 2 MB in size). On smaller partitions, it is advised to increase the calculated number of inodes. This is not difficult at all. The X86 project is a good place to be for more information about Gentoo's x86 support. It is not required when booting in EFI/UEFI mode. In this section of the Handbook a delineation has been made between emerging the boot loader's package and installing a boot loader to a system disk. It has no impact on the generated code, but uses more memory. Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook: Installing Gentoo, Burning with Microsoft Windows 7 and above, Optional: Viewing documentation while installing, Default: Using parted to partition the disk, Viewing the current partition layout with parted, Alternative: Using fdisk to partition the disk, Installing a Gentoo ebuild repository snapshot from the web, Optional: Updating the Gentoo ebuild repository, Optional: Configuring the ACCEPT_LICENSE variable, Optional: Using systemd as the init system, Architecture specific kernel configuration, Optional: Install wireless networking tools, /mnt/gentoo/usr/share/portage/config/make.conf.example, # Compiler flags to set for all languages, # Use the same settings for both variables, /usr/share/openpgp-keys/gentoo-release.asc, sync-openpgp-key-refresh-retry-overall-timeout, sync-openpgp-key-refresh-retry-delay-exp-base, sync-openpgp-key-refresh-retry-delay-mult, "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255", How do I install Gentoo using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, https://gentoo.org/.well-known/openpgpkey/hu/wtktzo4gyuhzu8a4z5fdj3fgmr1u6tob?l=releng, https://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html, https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html, https://wiki.gentoo.org/index.php?title=Handbook:X86/Full/Installation&oldid=185478. I've seen the similar question in other forum, and it was answered, but the answer does not fit my problem. If a NIS domain is needed (users that do not know this will not need one), define that one too: During the Gentoo Linux installation, networking was already configured. This requires the app-admin/mcelog package. Power the computer off. Now we will install and configure the Linux kernel. The program mkdir creates a new directory, and we are creating one at /mnt/gentoo/ called boot. But first make sure that the configuration is correct. The easiest method to establish an internet connection is to directly connect with an ethernet cable. As noted above, btrfs has the ability to create filesystems across multiple devices. Supported system locales must be defined in the /etc/locale.gen file. There are some steps to take before starting this installation guide. Is there a preferred, working method to create a live Gentoo ISO in 2013? With that being said, the reason EFI-based bootloaders such as GRUB2 exist is to extend the functionality of UEFI systems during the boot process. It is recommended to ask parted to use optimal partition alignment: Alignment means that partitions are started on well-known boundaries within the disk, ensuring that operations on the disk from the operating system level (retrieve pages from the disk) use the least amount of internal disk operations. I've been working with the amd64 64-bit bootable media recently. Before installing Gentoo, it is a good idea to be sure the date and time are set correctly. The kernel is manually configured and built. Some parts of the installation rely on the date being correct, and may produce strange results, otherwise. Simply insert a burnable disk, browse to the downloaded ISO files, right click the file in Windows Explorer, and select "Burn disk image". Configuring the network To be able to download the latest source code, networking will need to be configured. If the Ethernet device does not exist, the appropriate network modules need to be loaded. If downloading from a mirror, the minimal installation CDs can be found as follows: Inside this location, the installation media file is the file with the .iso suffix. Right now, the network configuration is made for the installed Gentoo Linux system. The image is maintained by Gentoo developers and allows anyone to install Gentoo if an active Internet connection is available. This step will erase all other data on the drive, so make sure that you have a free hard drive that you are willing to use. So I had to prepare a USB stick to boot from. First, download the 18.04 minimal ISO on the wiki page. Finally, we will create the root partition. It uses a straightforward yet perhaps not intuitive syntax. However, it lacks features when compared to GRUB. A full listing of available locales can be found in the /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED file. This backup table can be used to recover damage of the primary GPT near the beginning of the disk. Open up /etc/rc.conf and enjoy all the comments in the file. Unpack it by running: Next we must mount all of the necessary file systems that were contained in this archive. We are now ready to begin installing Gentoo! To make sure that the new environment works properly, certain filesystems need to be made available there as well. As an example, we assume the proxy is called proxy.gentoo.org and the port is 8080. Configuring the network To be able to download the latest source code, networking will need to be configured. This does mean that those users will need to manually mount this partition every time they want to use it. Step 3: Preparing the Hard Disks. The Gentoo wiki team also offers a documentation topic overview which lists a selection of wiki articles by category. Another way is to use the sudo package which is, if correctly configured, very secure. ZFS) are needed at early boot, rebuild initramfs afterward: List the modules that need to be loaded automatically in /etc/modules-load.d/*.conf files one module per line. Separate partitions or volumes have the following advantages: However, multiple partitions have disadvantages as well. When prompted for the first sector, make sure it starts from 2048 (which is needed for the boot loader) and hit Enter. There is no versioning concept, no pre-built packages. This would make the entry in the file look like so: Now, compile the kernel sources by running genkernel all. iw is also a useful basic diagnostic tool for scanning wireless networks. Gentoo Forums Forum Index Installing Gentoo: View previous topic:: View next topic : Author Message; ckoeber Apprentice Joined: 21 May 2007 Posts: 156 : Posted: Fri Apr 18, 2014 9:58 pm Post subject: Difference between Install and Admin Live CDs? From this point, all actions performed are immediately on the new Gentoo Linux environment. Run: You are now working from the Gentoo environment on your hard disk! download the public key used for Gentoo automated weekly releases (if you don't already have this on your helper PC); check the signature of the install-amd64-minimal-YYYYMMDDThhmmssZ.iso.DIGESTS.asc file using this key; and then; check that the hashes (digests) contained in that file agree with values that we compute independently. Each step results in a certain state: Whenever a certain choice is presented the handbook will try to explain the pros and cons of each choice. First we are going to install Gentoo Command-line-interface (CLI): Download Gentoo minimal iso. Double-check the /etc/fstab file, save and quit to continue. This is described later in Installing Necessary System Tools. The Screen utility is installed by default on official Gentoo installation media. Double check that the device you provide after "of=" is the correct device you want to mount the .iso file. Substitute ${GATEWAY} with the right gateway IP address: Fill in the nameserver(s) using the following as a template. If everything worked, continue with Preparing the disks. There are also FAQs on the Gentoo Forums. To use such a service, the necessary name servers need to be defined in /etc/resolv.conf. Now we want to create the first of our three partitions, the boot partition. Although Syslinux is a popular bootloader for many it is unsupported by the Handbook. Throughout the remainder of the handbook, the following partitioning scheme will be used as a simple example layout: If this suffices and the reader going the GPT route they can immediately jump to Default: Using parted to partition the disk. You will be dropped at command line shell, once you boot the iso. Filesystem labels and UUIDs are identified by the LABEL and UUID prefix and can be viewed with the blkid command: Because of uniqueness, readers that are using an MBR-style partition table are recommended to use UUIDs over labels to define mountable volumes in /etc/fstab. The devices you want to look at will be be labelled "sd*" and "sd*#", such as "sda" or "sda1". Step 1: Boot a live environment. We will configure portage and update our system now: This sets up Portage and tells it what kind of Gentoo environment we intend to run. Of course, it is also used because some people know LILO and want to stick with it. (Details zu den Architekturen finden sich im Gentoo-Handbuch.) 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